The roof is made of wood, bark, bamboo, thatch, straw, straw and even stone. However, these materials have poor water resistance and short life, and only after the appearance of artificial fired clay tiles, did they have real roof materials. The so-called "qin brick and han tile" refers to the clay tile that appeared more than two thousand years ago in China. Clay tile is less impurity, good plastic clay as the main raw material, through adding water mixing, embryo, drying, sintering and become, can be divided into flat tile and ridge tile according to the use, according to their color is divided into a park and red tiles. According to the national standard "clay tile" (gb1170-89), the flat tile has I, II and III models with dimensions of 400mm * 240mm, 380mm * 225mm, and 360mm * 220mm respectively. The minimum bending load of a single tile shall not be less than 680N. The tiles covering the roof of 1M2 shall not exceed 55kg after absorbing water. The frost resistance requires no stratification, cracking, peeling and other phenomena after 15 freeze cycles. The ridged tile is divided into grade 1 and grade qualified products, its length and width are greater than or equal to 300 and 180 respectively. Clay is mainly used for slope roofing of civil and rural buildings.
1. Product classification, grade and specifications
(1) according to the production process
A. Flat and ridged tiles baked by moulding the pressed tiles are called pressed tiles and pressed ridges.
B. The flat and ridged tiles made by roasting the extruded tiles after extrusion molding are called extruded tiles and extruded ridged tiles;
C. the hand-made ridged tile is made by roasting after being shaped by hand. It is called the hand-made ridged tile.
(2) by use
A. Clay flat tiles are used for roofing tiles as waterproof covering materials, including pressed flat tiles and extruded flat tiles (referred to as flat tiles);
B. Viscose ridge tiles are used for roof ridges of houses as waterproof covering materials, including compression ridges, extrusion ridges and hand ridges (referred to as ridges).
(3) the grade products are divided into three grades: first grade products, first grade products and qualified products according to size deviation, appearance quality and physical and mechanical properties.
2. Measurement of dimensional deviation
(1) the effective length of the pressed flat tile is measured, and the actual length of the extruded flat tile is measured; The effective width was measured for both flat tile widths. . Accuracy up to 1mm, less than 1mm to 1mm.
(2) the dimension inspection of the flat tile shall be measured at the middle part of its actual length and width.
3. Appearance quality inspection
(1) warping inspection
A. the warping of flat tiles shall be checked by the warping inspection ruler.
B. The warping of the flat tile is mainly to check the tile surface and the tile side, insert the warping inspection ruler into the space between the ruler and the flat tile, and measure the warping value at the maximum warping point.
C. The sample specially made by the ridge tile warping inspection color; During the inspection, the ridged tile head is naturally placed on sample A to measure the maximum clearance between its two bottom edges and the sample bottom surface. At the same time, the gap between the two feet of sample B and the bottom of A was measured by using sample B at the end of the tile. The maximum clearance value above was the buckling value of the ridge tile.
(2) crack inspection measures the maximum linear distance between the ends of cracks on the tile. The penetration crack refers to the crack from the front of the tile to the back. The maximum linear distance is calculated for curved line and meihua crack. When the number of cracks is more than two, the largest one is chosen.
(3) the maximum damage length of the defect on the tile surface should be measured for the inspection of missing edge chamfer. If the maximum depth of missing edge chamfer in the direction of tile thickness is less than 4 mm, it shall not be treated as missing edge.
(4) if it is really impossible to determine the color and percussion of the tile, it shall be determined by the anti-freeze test. The maximum diameter of the crack point of lime on the tile is measured, not exceeding 10mm.
4 take 5 pieces of sample, the bending load test, the natural dry tile face up flat on span two stents to L0 testing machine, flat tile tests must make a seat close to the hind PAWS hanging tile article, then the central concentrated load, supports and loading rod adopts 20 ￣ 30 mm diameter circular shaft, three axis should be parallel to each other, and make the load perpendicular to the surface, at a speed of about 100 n/s uniform loading, until the sample fracture. Its breaking load value is the value of the breaking load of the tile. Among them, the average value of 5 tiles and the average value of flexural load is called the average value of flexural load and the average value of flexural load. The minimum and single load of 5 tiles is called the minimum load.
Test sample 5, 5, frost resistance in 24 h after immersion in water purification, fell into the beforehand to below 15 ℃ in the cooler, kept at 15 ~ 20 ℃ under the condition of frozen 3 h, after take out into 15 ~ 20 ℃ water melt 2 h, called a freezing and thawing cycle. After 15 cycles of freezing-thawing repeatedly, the damage phenomena such as lamination, cracking and peeling of tiles were observed and recorded.
6, saturated water quality test sample 5 pieces, soak in water for 24 h after, use a wet towel to wipe the surface of the water droplets, weighing, accurate to 1 g, take its average, multiplied by the wattage is enough to cover 1 m roofing, called saturation of water quality values.
7. In the anti-permeability test, 3 samples were taken, and after the naturally dry flat tile was cleaned, a 25mm seal block was set around the outer edge of the flat tile around the front as the water enclosure. The enclosed water area should be close to the practical area of flat tiles. The specimen shall be supported on a bracket for easy observation and kept horizontal. The support shall not be supported within the observation area. After stabilization, clean water should be slowly injected into the water enclosure. The water level must be more than 15mm above the shallowest point of the tile surface. Keep this state for 3h, and observe whether there is water drop on the back of flat tile.
Concrete tiles are made of concrete roof tiles and accessories tiles. The concrete roof tiles are made of concrete and laid on the roof slope to complete the function of roof tiles. It is cement, sand or inorganic hard fine aggregate as the main raw material, which is made by mixing, stirring, forming and curing. According to the national standard gb8001-87, its standard size is 400mm * 240mm. Two 385 mm x 235 mm. Color concrete tile, commonly known as cement color tile, has a history of more than 100 years in Europe and the United States. Concrete tiles have the advantages of good durability and low cost, but they are of great importance and are mainly used for slope roofs of civil buildings and rural buildings.
Symbols and abbreviations of concrete tiles:
CT -- concrete tiles
CRT -- concrete roof tiles
CFT - concrete fitting tiles
L -- the total length of the tile
L1 -- the length of roof tiles
L2, l3 -- side hanging length of roof tiles
1- side lap; 2- covering part; 3 - the backend; 4 - WaJi; 5- total length; 6- front end (along); 7- tile transverse groove; 8 - edge reinforcement; 9- external transverse groove; 10- fixed hole; 11- hanging claw (rear claw); 12 - the backend; 13- windproof eaves; 14- supporting claw of tile (front claw); Within 15 - groove; 16- lap width b; 17- total width; 18- cover width b1
1- cornice seal; 2- cornice tiles; 3- roof tiles of eaves; 4- round ridge head; 5- round ridged tile; 6- two-way ridge roof tiles; 7-4 direction note: the above figure shows the schematic diagram and name of some concrete fitting tiles. The fitting tiles should be matched with different special tiles from various manufacturers
The products with grade size deviation and qualified appearance quality can be divided into three grades: first class product (A), first class product (B) and qualified product (C) according to physical and mechanical properties.
Mark concrete tiles by classification, specification and standard number.
Examples: concrete roofing tiles, 420mm x 330mm in external dimensions, grade 1 products are marked as CRT 420 x 330B JC 746 -- 19995
The main raw material cement shall meet the requirements of GB/T 175, GB/T 1344, GB/T 2015 and GB 12958, and the cement mark shall be no less than 425.
The allowable range of concrete tile defects
Refers to the standard
1. The damage size caused by the loss of Angle on the tile surface shall not be greater than the same time
2. Broken claw
Allow a missing claw, but not more than a third of the height of the claw
3. Defect of side bars: side bars collapse or edge bars break at the outer edge of the outer groove
4. The length of the polished edge shall not exceed (the damage width caused on the tile surface is not greater than 5mm)
The paint used for colored cement tiles varies from manufacturer to manufacturer, mainly divided into latex paint and waterborne coatings. No matter what kind of color tile paint is required to have high surface hardness, high transparent gloss and excellent water resistance, anti-water whiteness and outdoor durability.
The oil felt tile is made of glass fiber felt as the tread base. After being coated with petroleum asphalt, one side is covered with colored mineral granule, and the other side is covered with tile star waterproof sheet made of isolation material. The specification of the linoleum tile is long * wide * 1000mm * 333mm, and its thickness is not less than 2.8mm. The linoleum tile can be divided into superior product (A) and qualified product (C) according to the allowable deviation and physical performance of the specification. Oil felt tiles are suitable for multi-layer waterproof layer and single-layer waterproof layer of slope roof.
Products are marked in the following order: product name, quality grade, this standard number.
If superior product linoleum tile marks: linoleum tile ajc 503-92.
1. Technical requirements
After a, compared with the packing, in 10-45 ℃, environment temperature should be easy to open, not embrittlement and have broken oil production
Felt tile adhesion.
B. fiberglass felt must be fully soaked and covered with asphalt and must not contain uncoated fiber.
C. Linoleum tiles shall not have holes, uneven edge cutting, crack fracture and other defects.
D. The color and particle size of mineral particles must be uniform and tightly covered on the surface of felt tiles.
E. The self-adhesive joint is no more than 190mm from one end of the end cutting groove and is aligned with the anti-adhesive paper of the felt tile.
(2) weight: the average weight of linoleum tiles per square meter is not less than 2.5kg.
(3) allowable deviation of specification and size: Product (+ / - 5 mm
2. Physical performance
Soluble matter content, g/m2
To pull (25 + 2 ℃ longitudinal) N, no less than
Heat resistance, compared to 85 + 2 ℃, 2 h heated
The coating shall be free from sliding and concentrated bubbles
Flexibility, not more than 10 ℃ around r = 35 mm
There is no crack in the round rod or bending plate
3. Inspection rules
(1) the allowable deviation and physical performance of the appearance, weight, specification and size of the felt tiles shall be inspected at the factory.
(2) group approval rules: 500 bales of products of the same grade shall be one batch, and less than 500 bales shall also be inspected according to one batch.
(3) sampling and judgment rules
A, appearance, size deviation: allowed in each batch of products take 5 bundle package, take 2 pieces in each bundle of appearance, size deviation, allowed for qualified all indicators meet the requirements. If one can not meet the requirements, should take 5 bundles in the tested product review, each bundle take 2 tablets, all meet the requirements of indicators as well as a qualified, if still not meet the requirements, sentenced to this batch of product appearance, size allows deviation is unqualified.
B. Weight: weigh the 3 bales of linoleum tiles that have passed the appearance inspection, and the average weight of each square meter of linoleum tiles shall be qualified when they reach the specified indicators; If the product is found to be below the specified target, another 3 bales of the product should be taken out for review. If the product meets the target, it is also qualified in weight.
C. physical performance
(a) sampling: take 2 pieces of any felt tile with acceptable deviation in appearance, weight and dimensions for physical performance test.
(b) the arithmetical mean values of the test results of each specimen in terms of soluble matter content and tension reach the specified indicators; Heat resistance: all 3 specimens have reached the specified target; Flexibility: at least 5 out of 6 specimens. Meeting specified targets; That qualifies.
(c), determine: the test results accord with the physical performance index, was sentenced to this batch of physical properties of qualified products, if there is any item do not conform to the requirements of the indicators, take 4 tablets should be carried out in this batch of products compared to single the reinspection, all meet the requirements of indicators, the priest was sentenced to this batch of products qualified performance. If it is still unqualified, the physical performance of this batch of products will be judged to be unqualified.
D. General judgment: when the allowable deviation of appearance, weight and size of specifications and physical performance all reach the corresponding specified grade indicators, the batch of products shall be deemed as the corresponding grade products.
4. Delivery requirements: when the products leave the factory, the manufacturer shall provide the customer with the outgoing inspection results and qualification certificates of the batch of products.
5. Packaging, marking, storage and transportation
(1) packaging: 21 pieces of linoleum tiles shall be packed in a bundle, and product grade shall be marked, and the label shall be indicated. Marks include: name of the manufacturer; The trademark; Product marking, manufacturing date and shift; Precautions for storage and transportation.
(2) storage and transportation:
A. products of different colors and grades should not be mixed.
B. The linoleum tiles shall be laid flat, not exceeding 15 bales in height, and shall be protected from rain, sun, moisture and ventilation
C. The production unit shall not deal with any quality problem caused by improper transportation and storage, or product storage for more than one year from the date of production.
D. During transportation, the felt tiles must be laid down and covered with tarpaulin if necessary.